Rig counts represent how many rigs are actively drilling for hydrocarbons. Baker Hughes, an oilfield services company, reports rig counts on a weekly basis. The company notes that rig count trends are “governed by oil company exploration and development spending which is influenced by the current and expected price of oil and natural gas.” Therefore, rig counts can represent how confident oil and gas producers, such as ExxonMobil (XOM), ConocoPhillips (COP), Hess Corp. (HES), and Chevron (CVX), feel about the environment, as more rigs working means more spending.
The above chart shows U.S. oil rig counts from January 2005. Last week, the Baker Hughes oil rig count rose from 1,371 to 1,381. U.S. oil rig counts remain up 5% since the beginning of the year.
The increase in oil rigs drilling could be a signal that oil producers are feeling positive about the current oil price environment as they are putting more capital to work to produce oil. In the recent few weeks, oil price volatility has increased (see “WTI crude falls third week in a row, hurting oil producers’ earnings” for further details) and WTI crude prices fell from ~$97/barrel in late March to ~$87/barrel in mid-April before recovering to ~$94/barrel currently.
During the 2008 crisis, oil rig counts had fallen significantly. However, since then, the U.S. oil rig count had exploded as oil prices rebounded quickly and the development of shale plays such as the Bakken in North Dakota opened up attractive opportunities for oil drilling. After the massive increase, oil rig counts had fallen off somewhat in 3Q12. Some market participants noted that rising costs in some rapidly developing basins incentivized producers to cut back spending somewhat. Additionally, oil and gas producers may have pulled back spending in reaction to a dip in oil prices in 2Q12.
However, since the dip last year, oil prices had remained relatively robust. Oil had a strong rally beginning in December of last year. West Texas Intermediate (WTI), the benchmark U.S. crude, was trading around $85.00/barrel as recently as the second week of December and reached $97.00/barrel in mid-February. Excluding brief periods of weakness, WTI has largely been range-bound between ~$90/barrel and ~$97.00/barrel.
Given that prices have remained relatively high, it makes sense that producers were more constructive on the operating environment and would put more rigs to work. From January 4th to April 26th, the rig count increased by 63.
This past week’s rise in rig counts could be a signal that oil companies are feeling more positive about the current price and operating environment if the trend continues. Additionally, more U.S. oil drilling is generally positive for companies across the energy spectrum with U.S. assets from producers (such as the XOM, COP, HES, and CVX, as mentioned above) to midstream companies to service companies, many of which are found in the Energy Select Sector SPDR ETF (XLE).
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