- Producers in the Permian region in West Texas generally receive prices on oil closer to the Midland crude price rather than the domestic benchmark of WTI.
- Midland and WTI usually trade close to par, however, several times over the past two years the spread has blown out, sometimes to up to $20/barrel.
- Spreads have tightened since the beginning of the year. Additionally, last week the spread continued to tighten from $0.70/barrel to $0.55/barrel, a positive short-term catalyst for Permian producers.
Oil and gas producers in the Permian basin in West Texas suffer when the price of Midland crude decreases relative to the domestic benchmark crude of West Texas Intermediate (WTI). This is because the price producers in the Permian realize their oil is generally closer to the Midland crude price and when Midland crude prices decrease, they receive less revenue from the oil they produce. Some companies which this affects include Range Resources (RRC), Laredo Petroleum (LPI), Concho Resources (CXO), and EOG Resources (EOG).
Since the beginning of February, the gap between Midland crude and WTI crude narrowed from $2.35/barrel to $0.55/barrel. The spread traded as wide as $14.00/barrel at the beginning of January. The narrower spread is a positive indicator for producers in the Permian as it means they are not getting as large of a haircut off of WTI.
Midland crude has historically traded in line with WTI, as seen in the above graph. However, recently Permian production has ramped up significantly. Consequently, any disruption in takeaway capacity, which has been tight, has caused spreads to blow out. For instance, if a pipeline that normally takes crude out of the Permian goes down for some reason, the crude must be redirected to other pipelines or find other transport. If these other options are fully utilized, it could cause a temporary glut of Permian crude, pushing prices downward. Additionally, takeaway capacity in the Permian had lagged the growth in production for some time which caused a price divergence between Midland crude (which is priced in West Texas) and WTI (which is priced at Cushing, Oklahoma). Companies in the Permian generally receive a price closer to Midland crude than WTI, so this price divergence had an effect on the revenues of Permian producers.
From October through January, the spread widened significantly. The spread affected 4Q12 earnings of certain Permian producers such as Concho Resources (CXO). CXO recently reported that in 4Q12 it realized a price of $81.28/barrel for its crude, compared to the WTI price of $88.17/barrel. The spread also remained wide into the beginning of 1Q13 and will likely affect earnings for the quarter somewhat. Confirming this, Concho Resources COO Joe Wright noted on the company’s 4Q12 call, “While pricing for the first quarter is not quite complete, it appears the average Mid-Cush differential will be in the range of $7.50 to $8 per barrel. As a result, our expected unhedged realization in the first quarter as a percentage of NYMEX crude is likely to be in the low 80s.”
Additionally, CXO commented on the potential drivers behind the wider spread on its 3Q12 call in November 2012, “One current situation we’re watching is the recent widening of the Midland-to-Cushing differential. I believe much of the current spread is a combination of scheduled refinery maintenance at the Phillips 66 Borger refinery and outages along the Northeast caused by Hurricane Sandy. Current shipments to the Northeast from regions like the Bakken are now heading to Cushing.”
Since the beginning of 2013, the spread has steadily tightened with the exception of a minor short-term spike in late January. Currently, WTI and Midland crudes trade nearly at par, which may be a signal that sufficient infrastructure has been put in place to transport crude out of the West Texas region, and spreads continued to tighten last week in a positive short-term catalyst for Permian names. However, disruptions like that CXO mentioned on its 3Q12 call can have the effect of causing the spread to widen significantly again. Investors holding names with Permian exposure such as CXO, LPI, RRC, and EOG may find it prudent to monitor the Midland-WTI spread. Additionally, several names with Permian exposure can be found in the Energy Select Sector SPDR Fund (XLE).